First Rank Symptoms Present in Dissociative Disorders
Schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS) were once a set of criteria used to diagnose schizophrenia. However, over the years it has been found that these symptoms are not simply limited to schizophrenia, and are therefore not a valid diagnostic method for schizophrenia. In fact, FRS has been found to be more present in #dissociativedisorders than they are in schizophrenia. This has lead to many misdiagnoses.
Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms ( FRS )
1. Audible Thoughts – hallucinatory voices that echo or speak thoughts
2. Voices arguing – hallucinatory voices debating
3. Voices commenting – hallucinatory voices that comment on actions
4. Influences on the body – sensations that feel like they are imposed on the body
5. Thought withdrawal – thoughts are being withdrawn from the mind by an outside force
6. Thought broadcasting – thoughts are disseminating into the world
7. Thought insertion – thoughts placed into the mind by an outside force
8. “Made” feelings – feelings imposed by an outside force
9. “Made” actions – acting in ways that feel they are not one’s own
10. “Made” impulses – impulses that do not feel like one’s own
11. Delusional perception – fixed false beliefs
See : German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider
Patients with #DissociativeIdentityDisorder average 3.6 – 6.4 first rank symptoms, whereas the general population reports 0.5, and patients with schizophrenia report 0.9.
It is important to note that audible thoughts, thought broadcasting, and delusional perception are uncommon in those with DID, and only occur if they undergo a psychotic episode. These symptoms are more common among those with schizophrenia.
Comment below if you want to learn more about any of the symptoms listed above! I think the next post will focus on positive and negative dissociative symptoms.