Schizophrenia is a disorder that occurs at a young age. Shapes by disorder thoughts, mood, perception and behavior, the causes of which are unknown. It causes significant deterioration in one’s professional, interpersonal, academic and self-care functions. Therefore, it is also an important public health problem.
As with all mental disorders, no schizophrenic patient is exactly the same as the others. In each patient, the severity of the disease, affected mental areas, and the consequences of the disease are different. On the other hand, in general, it’s one of the most dramatic diseases of psychiatry in terms of its consequences. As soon as the disease manifests itself, it affects the patient’s life negatively. They have to take a break from work and school, and use antipsychotic drugs with negative side effects.
How Does a Schizophrenic Person Acts
From the outside, dull facial expression, timid appearance, strange gestures and facial expressions, decreased emotional reactions to events, may be in a lack of sensation. Difficult to establish a relationship. Their speech may have accelerated or slowed down, but the content became shallow and simplified. The conversation can sometimes be incomprehensible, contain unknown words, and the integrity of the sentences or words and their relationship to each other may be impaired. There is a general lack of interest, reluctance, lack of willingness to take action.
The patient’s mental functions, such as attention, memory, planning, organizing, calculating, judging, and reasoning, which we call “cognitive skills, doesn’t function well.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
In society, the first symptoms that come to mind when talking about schizophrenia are hallucinations (auditory perception defect) and delusions. Hallucinations are perceptual symptoms such as the hearing of unrealistic sounds, the appearance of images. Auditory hallucinations are most common in schizophrenia. These may be vague simple sounds (such as crackling, humming, water, etc.), or complicated sounds such as talking, discussing, commenting among themselves. Patients believe that these sounds actually exist, they are not fictitious, they can answer them, they can do what they say.
Another important symptom of schizophrenia is delusions. Delusions can be of any type, because of these misconceptions, patients may act strange, unreasonable, and say absurd things to others. But in fact, there is a logical connection between this behavior and its words and their own beliefs. Of course, these will be meaningless to someone from the outside and will draw attention. These delusions may be harmless or dangerous to the patient and the environment depending on the content. For this reason, patients may need to be hospitalized . Therefore, it is very important that the patient, his / her relatives and the following physician realize the first signs of the exacerbation of the disease as early as possible. This is because only in this case can the patient cooperate, an outpatient or a patient’s own consent can be treated.
In the other case, the patient has to go to hospital with the decision of compulsory hospitalization. This results in both traumatizing and disrupting treatment compliance and cooperation. Therefore, educating patients and their relatives about the disease and the recognition of exacerbation symptoms (psychoeducation) will provide very important benefits.
Treament of Schizophrenia
Only a very small proportion of patients with schizophrenia can return to their precondition, even if they recieve optimal treatment. Many patients are permanently affected by varying rates of disease. However, the treatment can reduce this negative impact as much as possible. First of all, the diagnosis should be made as early as possible. Because the disease begins to affect the course of the disease every day untreated,
The main treatment of schizophrenia is drugs. Because the main cause of the disease is biological disorders, such as weaknesses in the function of certain chemicals (such as dopamine, serotonin). Therefore, mainly antipsychotic drugs, anti-depressants, mood stabilizing drugs and antidepressant drugs are useful. Drug use should be regular and prolonged. The duration of treatment varies from patient to patient and the course of the disease. In most cases psychiatrists suggest lifetime drug use.
On the other hand, antipsychotic drugs have side effects that cause distress for the patient. Some of these side effects include weight gain, drowsiness, dizziness, susceptibility to certain medical diseases (diabetes, vascular congestion, etc.) as a result of increased blood sugar and fat levels, movement disorders (tremor, muscle stiffness, restlessness-restlessness). Nevertheless, one should never abandone these drugs completely.
Other than medications in schizophrenia treatment; activities performed by community mental health centers, psychosocial treatments and some psychotherapies (cognitive-behavioral therapy, supportive psychotherapy)
Stigmatization is an important issue in schizophrenia. It has long been believed that schizophrenia is related to crime and murder. Scientific research has shown that the existence of such a relationship is much less than believed, and that this relationship applies only to untreated schizophrenia. Aggression occurs in one of 10 schizophrenia patients. It is a serious mistake to generalize this to all schizophrenic patients. Considering factors such as the incidence of the disease in the community, the probability of any one of us being killed by a schizophrenia patient is 1 in 14 million. The risk of aggression is greatly reduced if the patient is treated
Conversely, community exclusion of schizophrenia patients may increase the risk of aggression. Society should not be afraid of schizophrenia patients, should protect them. Supporting them and understanding the treatment in the community is very important in healing. Most patients with schizophrenia stay away from treatment initially. The most important reason for this is that schizophrenia patients are pushed out of society as a result of stigmatization, they are ashamed of their illnesses . If they go for treatment,they know that everyone will shame them because of their disease.