Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. It is a personal ethical philosophy shaped by his views on the logic system and the natural world. In this article, you will be informed about the history and small information about Stoicism.
Stoicism, knowing the value of the moment, not getting caught up in the past, changing our perspective of events, knowing ourselves and knowing and accepting our limits, is a rising approach to the idea that happiness can be achieved.
It can be said as one of the schools of the Ancient Greek period with a pantheist and materialist approach for Stoicism. Seneca, Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius are among the main Stoics seeking answers to questions such as the meaning of life, how to achieve happiness, what one should have to do with others, or what is one’s place in the world.
The Stoics have a materialistic and monist mindset in their metaphysical teaching. They accept that all objects are embodied. They acknowledged that an object that is not objectified is merely an illusion. What is material and materialized is real. The reason for this is that the tangible asset is conducive to being a passive element.
The Stoics also made an explanation to God. According to their opinions, at the source of the object, there is a principle that the substance exits from its core and returns to itself again, and the essence of this universe; Is God. It is considered a force that moves matter and does not exist without it. It is not made of any substance, nor is it shaped from it.
The Stoa Philosophy linked most things to its creator and cause god. From another perspective, the Stoics were obliged to obey all-natural processes such as life, illness or death, and by believing in fate by trying to lead a virtuous life appropriate for nature. According to them, nothing would happen with the logic of coincidence; everything was born of necessity and reason, and complaining about fate would be useless; because god was always right and right.
In terms of physics’s doctrine, they rejected the atomist mindset and had a materialistic mindset that considered material and real. They accepted that the source of all designs is some impressions in the soul due to external influences. However, they are empirical, which acquire information through senses or consciousness as the principle of logic. They believed that the soul was like a sheet of paper that had never been written and filled with the impressions of the outer world over time, and some ideas that appeared in the soul had become personal concepts. So they placed the opposite of Plato between understanding, real knowledge and delusion, and basing knowledge on sensory perception and some impressions.
The Stoic puts “mind” in the philosophical focus. According to them, the reality that exists in this world in the form that our mind offers us. (In this sense, they call the world ‘Natural World’.) The Natural World, which does not hide any higher reality, is subject to rational principles and can be comprehended by reason. Man is also part of the Natural World. For them, God is the spirit of rationality that fills man and nature (that is, everything). So God is not separate from the world, apart from him; it is in this world and covers everywhere. In other words, God is the mind of this world.
According to the stoics; It is necessary to remember about death, that he is mortal and that his loved ones will die. So we can live life more accurately. Also, stoikers are not afraid of death; because you are where there is death. However, how you approach death, how you spend your time makes a difference for them.