WISC–R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) is basically an intelligence test to measure children’s intelligence levels and to obtain information about their mental development.
The WISC-R is a measure of an individual’s intellectual functioning in one or more areas. It is intended to assess the individual’s general level of cognitive ability.
The WISC-R consists of 10 different types, each measuring a different aspect of cognition, which are Verbal Abilities (Variable for Grades 1-2) and Performance IQ Differential (formed by Picture Arrangement and Block Design).
Why WISC-R is used?
It is widely preferred because of its reliability and validity among the intelligence measurement tools used today. The test not only measures the level of intelligence but also informs the child about his/her weaknesses and strengths. It also allows us to recognize mental retardation early in the child but also makes it easy to distinguish children with superior intelligence. Moreover, the WISC-R intelligence test sheds light on which areas children are more skilled and less capable of.
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is an abstract concept that makes it difficult for many scientists to explain. Although there are various opinions about what intelligence is, intelligence can be described as comprehension, abstract thinking, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, adapting the acquired knowledge to new situations.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg argued that we can measure intelligence with tests. He found it useful to test scales to determine and predict academic performance. Among the scientists who study intelligence, some say that intelligence is one-way, while psychologist Howard Gardner talks about multiple intelligence concepts. According to multiple intelligence theory, it is accepted that there are eight different types of intelligence in the individual. Gardner accepts the types of intelligence are verbal, logical, visual, physical, musical, personal, social, and natural intelligence types. According to this theory, each individual shows different kinds of intelligence development.
What is an Intelligence Test?
Researchers found several different types of intelligence measuring tools in history. The success of these measurement tools depends on the validity and reliability of the test.
Validity is that the measuring tool can measure what it wants to measure without interfering with anything else. For example, intelligence testing should measure intelligence only, not special abilities.
Intelligence tests with these three basic features give us as accurate and error-free as possible. In this respect, the WISC-R test is widely used in education as it is a well-adapted test to the culture and gives reliable results.
The main purpose of the intelligence test is to determine the level of mental development in the individual. However, intelligence tests may be insufficient in some cases to measure logical and verbal skills in general.
Why Do We Need Intelligence Test?
Whether or not intelligence tests measure intelligence clearly is a topic of debate, but the use of major intelligence tests is generally accepted. Families decide whether their children will take tests.
First of all, an intelligence test is not a test that should be for every child. Parents who are curious about the child’s intelligence, even when they don’t need it may request an intelligence test. However, these desires and expectations can harm the child.
Parents expecting superior intelligence from the child may cause different problems in the child. Therefore, some data must be available to perform the test.
These data include the family’s first impressions about the child, but the expert’s decision is effective. It is possible to identify gifted and mentally disabled children with these tests performed by the specialist. Therefore, intelligence tests are important in determining children’s different development and providing them with an appropriate education. It is beneficial in the early identification of children in need of special education. Also, since the intelligence test gives us an idea of children’s skills and abilities, it guides orientation to the appropriate occupation.
What is Wisc-R?
WISC-R intelligence test was first designed for adults by psychologist David Wechsler in 1939 and then developed to measure children‘s intelligence level. Test content includes verbal and non-verbal problems, ranging in difficulty from very easy to very difficult.
Children start the test from the simplest question level to the increasingly difficult questions they cannot solve.
With the sub-tests of verbal and non-verbal sections, children with learning disabilities in schools take tests.
The verbal test contents measure vocabulary and general knowledge, while the non-verbal part measures judgment, such as sorting, repeating, arranging numbers, creating stories from pictures.
A higher IQ score indicates higher school success, while a low IQ score indicates inadequate school success. IQ scores indicate current success, but also help predict future success. However, since intelligence is a concept that can develop, there are time-dependent changes in intelligence and environmental conditions, lifestyle, and education.
Who Should Take WISC-R Intelligence Test ?
WISC-R intelligence test measures intelligence in two areas:
Verbal and performance and it is applied to children aged 6-16 to evaluate their mental development.
The verbal part of the WISC-R test measures the child’s :
- Cognitive Ability,
- School Knowledge,
- Social Judgment, and short- and long-term memory, and determines the level of mental development according to age.
In the performance section, cognitive areas such as the child’s ability to work within the time limit, psychomotor and visual skills, the ability to think abstractly, the ability to cope with new stimuli, sequencing skills, and evaluating the perception of shapes.
When we look at the age range, we see that the WISC-R test is for both children and adolescents.
Although the WISC-R test is individual, the child takes the WISC-R test with a specialist.
The average application time of the WISC-R test is 1.5-2 hours. This period varies according to the performance of the person.
Last Updated on December 10, 2022 by Lucas Berg